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    CERN restarted

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    Vladimir

    Posts : 24
    Join date : 2010-02-18
    Location : South Lake Tahoe

    CERN restarted

    Post  Vladimir on Sun 28 Feb 2010, 8:00 pm

    GENEVA – Operators of the world's largest atom smasher restarted their massive machine Sunday in a run up to experiments probing secrets of the universe, a spokeswoman said.

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research, or CERN, sent low energy beams of protons in both directions around the 27-kilometer (17-mile) tunnel housing the Large Hadron Collider under the Swiss-French border at Geneva, said Christine Sutton.

    After a cautious trial period, CERN plans to ramp up the energy of the beams to unprecedented levels and start record-setting collisions of protons by late March, Sutton said.

    The restart follows a 2 1/2 month winter shutdown during which scientists made improvements and checked out the smasher's ability to collide protons at energies three times greater than has ever been achieved previously.

    The new collisions are expected to shatter the subatomic particles and reveal still smaller fragments and forces than previously achieved on any collider, including the previous record-holder — the Tevatron at Fermilab outside Chicago.

    The Large Hadron Collider was built to examine suspected phenomena such as dark matter, antimatter and ultimately the creation of the universe billions of years ago, which many theorize occurred as an explosion known as the Big Bang.

    "We've started up again," said Sutton.

    The restart follows successful trial runs late last year when CERN showed that it had made a big comeback from its initial Sept. 10, 2008, startup with great fanfare. The machine was sidetracked nine days later when a badly soldered electrical splice overheated and set off a chain of damage to the magnets and other parts of the collider.

    CERN had to undertake a $40 million program of repairs and improvements over 14 months before it was ready to retry the machine at the end of November. Then the the collider performed almost flawlessly, giving scientists valuable data in the four-week run before Christmas.

    "They learned a lot which they've gone away and digested, and now they're trying to make adjustments," Sutton said.

    CERN specialists have checked out and improved electrical connections and other parts of the machine since the shutdown, but still want to take further steps to make sure the Large Hadron Collider is ready to operate at higher energy.

    "There's a long way to go between getting the first bunches of protons to go around and actually getting the machine to its top working levels," Sutton said. "It's a lot like having designed a Formula One racing car. The first time you send it out, the guy doesn't go round the circuit as fast as he can. You have to learn about the controls, how the car handles."

    At its greatest energy, the atom smasher collided two beams of circulating particles traveling in opposite directions at 1.18 trillion electron volts, or TeV, about 20 percent higher than the previous record set at Fermilab.

    After the current cautious restart, CERN will ramp up the energy pushing the beams of protons still higher, to 3 1/2 times the highest levels reached in Chicago. The showers of particles created at that level are expected to reveal still more about the makeup of matter.

    The long-term goal, after more modifications, will be to run the proton beams at 7 TeV in each direction, but CERN has decided that it will continue its cautious approach and run at 3.5 TeV for 18-24 months. Then a long shutdown will allow for further improvements for operation at the full design energy.
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    Dreemz

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    Join date : 2010-02-17

    LHC from two-trillion degree heat, create new matter...

    Post  Dreemz on Mon 08 Mar 2010, 12:30 pm

    www.physorg.com

    From two-trillion-degree heat, researchers create new matter -- and new questions
    March 4, 2010

    A worldwide team of researchers have for the first time created a particle that is believed to have been in existence immediately after the creation of the universe - the so-called "Big Bang" - and it could lead to new questions and answers about some of the basic laws of physics because in essence, it creates a new form of matter.

    An international team of scientists studying high-energy collisions of gold ions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a 2.4-mile-circumference particle accelerator located at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Laboratory, has published evidence of the most massive antinucleus discovered to date. The new antinucleus, discovered at RHIC’s STAR detector, is a negatively charged state of antimatter containing an antiproton, an antineutron, and an anti-Lambda particle. It is also the first antinucleus containing an anti-strange quark. The results will be published online by Science Express on March 4, 2010.

    “This experimental discovery may have unprecedented consequences for our view of the world,” commented theoretical physicist Horst Stoecker, Vice President of the Helmholtz Association of German National Laboratories. “This antimatter pushes open the door to new dimensions in the nuclear chart — an idea that just a few years ago, would have been viewed as impossible.”

    The discovery may help elucidate models of neutron stars and opens up exploration of fundamental asymmetries in the early universe.
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    Dreemz

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    LHC to shut down for year to address safety concerns

    Post  Dreemz on Wed 10 Mar 2010, 12:18 pm

    LHC to shut down for a year to address safety concerns
    http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/8556621.stm
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    johnl

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    Join date : 2010-02-21
    Location : Portland

    CERN to test collisions at 7 TeV next week

    Post  johnl on Thu 25 Mar 2010, 2:14 am

    CERN scientists will try to produce proton collisions at 7 TeV, a new record, next Tuesday, March 30th, or they’ll at least work on the alignment for those collisions. “Two 3.5 TeV beams to collide, creating the 7 TeV collision.” The final plan is to produce 14 TeV collisions. Many physicists are afraid that these speed-of-light particle collisions might cause “black holes” or “strangelets” – irregular atomic composition of nuclear particles. (for instance, like the new anti-nucleus in dreemz’ article).

    http://genevalunch.com/blog/2010/03/24/cern-on-collision-course-for-30-march/

    Cern on collision course for 30 March

    Geneva, Switzerland (GenevaLunch) – Cern, the European Nuclear Research Organization, has scheduled its first collisions at 7 TeV, a record if it is achieved, for 30 March. Or, more precisely, it is scheduling the completion of the alignment process that it hopes will lead quickly to collisions, which are in part designed to find Higgs boson. The process popularly dubbed the hunt for the ”God particle” is expected to push the frontiers of our understanding of physics.

    The speed at which Cern’s scientists will be able to create a collision is unknown.

    Beams have been “routinely” circulating at 3.5 Tev for a week, says Cern and the system is being prepared, or commissioned, to allow two 3.5 TeV beams to collide, creating the 7 TeV collision. But “But we’ve still got a lot of work to do before collisions,” says Steve Myers, Cern’s director for accelerators and technology. ”Just lining the beams up is a challenge in itself: it’s a bit like firing needles across the Atlantic and getting them to collide half way.”
    ----------------------------

    This links to an interesting, easy-to-understand video about the possiblity of black holes or “strangelets” being produced by CERN. The black holes could increase in size over a year or two from the inside of the earth, and cause pressure outwardly, resulting in possible earthquakes. This was an interview between George Noory and a physicist.

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YZAQn-KxW_k

    John
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    Dreemz

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    Join date : 2010-02-17

    Big Bang LHC Collides particles at record 3/30/10

    Post  Dreemz on Tue 30 Mar 2010, 12:05 pm

    www.abcnews.go.com
    Big Bang Collides Particles at Record

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    By Robert Evans
    March 30, 2010

    GENEVA (Reuters) - Physicists at the CERN research center achieved high-power collisions of sub-atomic particles on Tuesday in their attempt to create mini-versions of the Big Bang that led to the birth of the universe 13.7 billion years ago.

    The experiment at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN), creating a record for the energy of particle conditions, will allow researchers to examine the nature of matter and the origin of stars and planets.

    "This is a major breakthrough. We are going where nobody has been before. We have opened a new territory for physics," Oliver Buchmueller, one of the key figures on the 10 billion Swiss franc ($9.4 billion) project, told Reuters.

    The collisions took place at a record total collision energy of 7 billion billion electron volts (eV) and at a nano-fraction of a second slower than the speed of light in CERN's 27 km (16.8 mile) Large Hadron Collider (LHC), about a hundred meters (330 feet) below the Swiss-French border.

    The experiment was delayed for a few hours by a couple of technical glitches with the power supply and an over-sensitive magnet safety system. This led the physicists to suspend the mega-power particle collisions, the focus of the world's largest scientific experiment.

    After the problems arose as beams were injected into the collider in the early morning, CERN officials were quick to dismiss any suggestion that it was a repeat of a major incident in September 2008 that seriously damaged parts of the experiment and delayed the full launch of the project until now.

    During the coming months and years, CERN scientists expect the project to lift the veil on some of the mysteries of the cosmos -- how matter was converted to mass after the fireball of the Big Bang and what is the dark, or invisible, matter that makes up an estimated 25 percent of the universe.

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